The Bologna Process Qualifications Framework:
The basic framework is three cycles of higher-education qualifications. The framework adopted by the ministers at their meeting in Bergen in 2005 defines the qualifications in terms of learning outcomes.
A learning outcome is: a statement of what students know and can do on completing their degrees.
In describing the cycles, the framework uses the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS):
- First cycle: typically 180–240 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 credits per academic year), usually awarding a bachelor’s degree.
- Second cycle: typically 90–120 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 ECTS per academic year), usually awarding a master’s degree.
- Third cycle (doctoral degree): There has no concrete ECTS range, since the disciplines vary in length and comprehensiveness.
In most cases, it would take three to four years to earn a bachelor’s degree and another one or two years for a master’s degree. Doctoral degrees usually require another two to four years of specialization, primarily individual research under a mentor. Degree names may vary by country.
European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits are a standard means for comparing the “volume of learning based on the defined learning outcomes and their associated workload” for higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries.
For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits that are normally equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of total workload, irrespective of standard or qualification type. ECTS credits are used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union. ECTS also includes a standard grading scale, intended to be shown in addition to local (i.e. national) standard grades.
The system set by the Bologna Process has been adopted by many other countries who are not part of the EHEA in order the facilitate the movement for their citizens across Europe e.g. Turkey, Slovenia, etc.
National Qualifications Framework of the Belgium:
National Qualifications Framework of the Netherlands:
National Qualification Framework of Luxembourg:
National Qualification Framework of Ireland:
National Qualification Framework of Spain:
National Qualification Framework of France:
National Qualification Framework of Germany:
Estonian Qualifications Framework:
National Qualifications Framework for Turkey: